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Publications by Year


Chao S, Jazi F, Sabapaty A, Dalusag K, Abrajano C, Nguyen J, Robinson B, Caruso TJ, Rodriguez S, Hartman G. Let kids play: using virtual reality as a substitute for general anesthesia for minor procedures in pediatric population. Accepted at Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Jan 2024

Fonseca A, Qian D, Forbes T, Li BS, Lee C, Burdsall K, Rodriguez S, Jackson C, Wang EY, Caruso TJ. Reducing Preoperative Caregiver Anxiety With Virtual Reality: A Pragmatic, Randomized Controlled Study. J Patient Exp. 2024 Jan 5;11:23743735231220190. PMID: 38188533.


Rodriguez ST, Makarewicz N, Wang EY, Zuniga-Hernandez M, Titzler J, Jackson C, Suen MY, Rosales O, Caruso TJ. Virtual reality facilitated exercise improves pain perception: A crossover study. J Clin Anesth. 2023 Dec;91:111257. Epub 2023 Sep 13. PMID: 37708601.

Nguyen T, Yamaguchi C, Tilton L, Caruso T. Innovating pediatric care with social robots to alleviate anxiety. Paediatr Anaesth. 2023 Nov 7. PMID: 37936541.

Wang EY,  Kennedy KM,  Zhang L, Qian D, Forbes T, Zuniga-Hernandez M, Li BSK, Domingue B, Caruso TJ. Predicting Pediatric Healthcare Provider Use of Virtual Reality using a Technology Acceptance Model.  JAMIA Open, Volume 6, Issue 3, October 2023. PMID: 37693368.

Rama A, Tsai AH, Caruso TJ. Enhancing Telemedicine Perioperative Simulations Using Augmented Reality. J Educ Perioper Med. 2023 Jul 1;25(3):E711. PMID: 37720372.

Tsai A, Bodmer N, Hong T, Frackman A, Hess O, Khoury M, Jackson C, Caruso TJ. Participant Perceptions of Augmented Reality Simulation for Cardiac Anesthesiology Training: A Prospective, Mixed-Methods Study. J Educ Perioper Med. 2023 Jul 1;25(3):E712. PMID: 37720369

Nguyen AT, Hemphill S, Donahue B, Menendez M, Rodriguez S, Caruso TJ. Use of virtual reality for targeted physical rehabilitation: Case report on managing functional motor disorder. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2023; 16(2): 415-423.. doi: 10.3233/PRM-210009. PMID: 36120795.

Friedman N, Zuniga-Hernandez M, Titzler J, Suen MY, Wang E, Rosales O, Graham J, D’Souza P, Menendez M, Caruso TJ.  Prehospital Pediatric Emergency Training Using Augmented Reality Simulation: A Prospective, Mixed Methods Study.  Prehospital Emergency Care 2023 Jun 15; 1-18.  PMID: 37318845.

Yun R, Hess O, Kennedy K, Stricker PA, Blake L, Caruso TJ. Assessing pediatric perioperative affect: A concise review of research and clinically relevant scales. Paediatr Anaesth. 2023 Mar;33(3):243-249. PMID: 36178764.


Rodriguez S, Caruso TJ. What Every Anesthesiologist Should Know About Virtual Reality. Paediatr Anaesth. 2022 Dec;32(12):1276-1277. PMID: 36352521

Yun R, Hess O, Kennedy K, Stricker PA, Blake L, Caruso TJ. Assessing pediatric perioperative affect: A concise review of research and clinically relevant scales. Paediatr Anaesth. 2022 Sep 30. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36178764

Nguyen AT, Hemphill S, Donahue B, Menendez M, Rodriguez S, Caruso TJ. Use of virtual reality for targeted physical rehabilitation: Case report on managing functional motor disorder. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2022 Sep 13. doi: 10.3233/PRM-210009. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36120795.

Richey AE, Hastings KG, Karius A, Segovia NA, Caruso TJ, Frick S, Rodriguez S. Virtual Reality Reduces Fear and Anxiety During Pediatric Orthopaedic Cast Room Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr Orthop. 2022 Nov-Dec 01;42(10):600-607. Epub 2022 Aug 30. PMID: 36040069.

Qian J, Rama A, Wang E, Wang T, Hess OM, Khoury M, Jackson C, Caruso TJ. Assessing Pediatric Life Support Skills using Augmented Reality Medical Simulation with Eye Tracking: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine. 2022 Jul-Sept; 24(3): E691. PMID: 36274998.

Hess O, Qian J, Bruce J, Wang E, Rodriguez S, Haber N, Caruso TJ. Communication Skills Training Using Remote Augmented Reality Medical Simulation: A Feasibility and Acceptability Qualitative Study. Med Sci Educ. 2022 Aug 4:1-10. PMID: 35966166.

Neiman N, Falkson SR, Rodriguez ST, Wang E, Hemphill SF, Khoury ME, Kist MN, Jackson C, Caruso TJ. Quantifying Virtual Reality Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Crossover Study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2022 Sep;80:110876. PMID 35525050.

Hemphill S, Rodriguez S, Wang E, Koeppen K, Aitken-Young B, Jackson C, Simons L, Caruso TJ. Virtual Reality Augments Movement during Physical Therapy: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2022 Mar 1; 101(3): 229-236. PMID: 33935153

Alonzi S, Caruso TJ, Sindher S, Cao S, Varadharajuli S, Collins W, Chinthrajah S. Virtual Reality Reduces Pediatric Anxiety during Food Allergy Clinical Trials: A Pilot Randomized, Pragmatic Study. Frontiers in Allergy. 2022, January. PMID: 35387040.

Richey A; Khoury M, Segovia N, Hastings K, Caruso TJ, Frick S, Rodriguez S. Use of Bedside Entertainment and Relaxation Theater (BERT) to Reduce Fear and Anxiety During Outpatient Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 2022 Jan 1;42(1):30-34. PMID 34739431


Caruso TJ, Fonseca A, Barreau A, Khoury M, Menendez M, Wang E, Lawrence K, Jackson C, Rodriguez S. Real Time Reorientation and Cognitive Load Adjustment Allow for Broad Application of Virtual Reality in Pediatric Hospital. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research. 2021 Dec 28; 7(6): 750-753. PMID: 34988325

Kennedy KM, Wang E, Rodriguez ST, Qian J, Khoury M, Kist M, Jackson C, Yun R, Caruso TJ. Development and Assessment of an Efficient Pediatric Affect and Cooperation Scale. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2021 Oct 30;76:110569. PMID: 34739949

Taylor, J; Chandler, J; Menendez, M; Diyaolu, M; Austin, J; Gibson, M; Portelli, K; Caruso, TJ; Rodriguez, S; Chao, S. Small Surgeries, Big Smiles: Using virtual reality to reduce the need for sedation or general anesthesia during minor surgical procedures. Pediatric Surgery International 2021 Jul 16. PMID: 34269867

Caruso TJ, Armstrong-Carter E, Rama A, Neiman N, Taylor K, Madill M, Lawrence K, Hemphill S, Domingue BW. The Physiologic and Emotional Effects of 360-Degree Video Simulation on Head-Mounted Display vs In-Person Simulation: A Non-Inferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial. Simulation in Healthcare. 2021 Jun 11. PMID: 34120135

Wang E, Thomas JJ, Rodriguez ST, Kennedy KM, Caruso TJ. Virtual Reality for Pediatric Periprocedural Care. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology. 2021 Jun 01; 34(3): 284-91. PMID: 33935176.

Wren, A; Neiman, N; Caruso, TJ; Rodriguez, S; Tayler, K; Madill, M; Rives, H; Nguyen L. Mindfulness-Based Virtual Reality Intervention for Children and Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Study. Children 2021 May 5;8(5):368. PMID: 34063034

Hemphill, S; Rodriguez, S; Wang, E; Simons, L; Caruso, TJ. Virtual Reality Augments Movement during Physical Therapy: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2021 Apr 30. PMID: 33935153

Caruso, TJ; Hess, O; Roy, K; Wang, E; Rodriguez, S; Palivathukal, C; Haber, N. Integrated Eye-Tracking on Magic Leap One during Augmented Reality Medical Simulation: A Technical Report. BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning 2021;7:431-434. PMID: 35515734

Logan DE, Simons LE, Caruso T, Gold JI, Greenleaf W, Griffin A, King C, Menendez M, Olbrecht V, Rodriguez S, Silvia M, Stinson J, Wang E, Williams S, Wilson L. Leveraging VR/AR to combat chronic pain in youth: Position paper from the Interdisciplinary Network on Virtual and Augmented (AR/VR) Technologies for Pain (INOVATE-Pain) Management. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2021 Mar 4. PMID: 33667177

Yuan, J; Rodriguez, S; Caruso, T. Unique considerations of virtual reality utilization for perioperative pediatric patients. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2021 Feb;31(3): 377-378. PMID: 33631038

Hemphill, S; Nguyen, A; Kwon, J; Rodriguez, S; Wang, E; Caruso, TJ. Virtual Reality Facilitates Physical Therapy in the Cardiovascular ICU. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2021; 33(1): E7-E9. PMID: 33337780


Hemphill, S; Nguyen, A; Rodriguez, ST; Menendez, M; Wang, E; Lawrence, K; Caruso, TJ. Mobilization and Calibration of the HTC VIVE for Virtual Reality Physical Therapy. Digital Health. 2020 Sep 11. PMID: 32963801

Caruso, TJ; Madill, M; Sidell, D; Meister, K; Wang, E; Menendez, M; Rodriguez, S. Using Augmented Reality to Reduce Fear and Promote Cooperation During Pediatric Otolaryngologic Procedures. Laryngoscope. 2020 Sep 4. PMID: 32886794

Griffin, A; Wilson, L; Feinstein, A; Bortz, A; Heirich, M; Gilkerson R, Wagner, J, Menendez, M; Caruso, TJ; Rodriguez, S; Naidu, S; Golianu, B; Simons, L. Virtual Reality in Pain Rehabilitation for Youth with Chronic Pain: Pilot Feasibility Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 7(2):e22620. PMID: 33226346

Caruso, TJ; Qian, J; Lawrence, K; Armstrong-Carter, E; Domingue, B. From Socrates to Virtual Reality: A Historical Review of Learning Theories and their Influence on the Training of Anesthesiologists. Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine. 2020 Apr-Jun;22(2):E638. PMID: 32939366

Marquez, J; O’Connell, C; Munshey, F; Wang, E; Darling, C; Tsui B; Rodriguez, ST, Caruso, TJ. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Predictors and Interventions that Influence Cooperation with Mask Induction in Children. Pediatric Anesthesia. 24 May 2020. PMID: 32452092

Dinh, A; Furukawa, L; Caruso, TJ. The Virtual Visit: Using Immersive Technology to Visit Hospitals during Social Distancing and Beyond. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2020 Aug;30(8):954-956. PMID: 32959974

Caruso, TJ; Kung, T; Qian, J; Wang, E; O’Connell, C; Kist, M; Pearson, M; Kinnebrew, S; Menendez, M; Rodriguez, ST. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of an Integrated Virtual Reality Program at a Single Institution. Pediatric Quality and Safety. 2020 March:5(2):293-301. PMID: 32426648

Balazy KE, Gutkin PM, Skinner L, von Eyben, R., Fowler, T., Pinkham, D. W., Rodriguez, S., Maxim, P. G., Donaldson, S. S., Loo, B. W., Bush, K., Hiniker, S. M. Impact of Audiovisual-Assisted Therapeutic Ambience in Radiation Therapy (AVATAR) on Anesthesia Use, Payer Charges, and Treatment Time in Pediatric Patients Pract Radiat Oncol. 2020 Jul - Aug;10(4):e272-e279. PMID: 31935524

Caruso TJ, George A, Menendez M, De Souza E, Khoury M, Kist MN, Rodriguez ST. Virtual reality during pediatric vascular access: A pragmatic, prospective randomized, controlled trial. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2020 02;30(2):116-123. PMID: 31785015


Kist M, Bekemeyer Z, Ralls L, Carvalho B, Rodriguez ST, Caruso TJ. Virtual reality successfully provides anxiolysis to laboring women undergoing epidural placement. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2019 Oct 26:109635. PMID 31662229

Rodriguez ST, Jang O, Hernandez JM, George AJ, Caruso TJ, Simons LE. Varying screen size for passive video distraction during induction of anesthesia in low‐risk children: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2019 Jun; 29(6):648-55. PMID: 30916447


Blair, GJ, Kapil, S, Cole, SP, Rodriguez S. Virtual Reality Use in Adult ICU to Mitigate Anxiety for a Patient on V-V Ecmo. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2018; 55: 26-27. PMID: 30590187

Caruso TJ, Tsui JH, Wang E, Scheinker D, Sharek PJ, Cunningham C, Rodriguez ST. A Retrospective Review of a Bed-mounted Projection System for Managing Pediatric Preoperative Anxiety. Pediatric Quality & Safety. 2018 Jul;3(4):e087. PMID: 30229198

Rodriguez S, Munshey F, Caruso TJ. Augmented reality for intravenous access in an autistic child with difficult access. Pediatric Anaesthesia. 2018 Jun;28(6):569-70. PMID: 29878540


Yuan JC, Rodriguez S, Caruso TJ, Tsui JH. Provider-controlled virtual reality experience may adjust for cognitive load during vascular access in pediatric patients. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2017 Dec 1;64(12):1275-6. PMID: 28861855

Rodriguez S, Tsui JH, Jiang SY, Caruso TJ. Interactive video game built for mask induction in pediatric patients. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2017 Oct 1;64(10):1073-4. PMID 28646461

Hiniker S, Bush K, Fowler T, White E, Rodriguez ST, Maxim P, Donaldson S, Loo BW. Initial clinical outcomes of Audiovisual-Assisted Therapeutic Ambience in Radiotherapy (AVATAR). Practical Radiation Oncology, 2017; 7(5): 311-18. PMID: 28242188

Rodriguez S, Caruso TJ, Tsui B. Bedside Entertainment and Relaxation Theater: size and novelty does matter when using video distraction for perioperative pediatric anxiety. Pediatric Anaesthesia. 2017 Jun;27(6):668. PMID: 28474813.